Because power is widely distributed and checks prevent one branch from usurping powers from the others, institutional actors are in the position where they must both compete and cooperate in order to govern.
1. The republican ideal in the U.S. is manifested in the structure and operation of the legislative branch.
2. The presidency has been enhanced beyond its expressed constitutional powers.
3. The design of the judicial branch protects the Supreme Court’s independence as a branch of government, and the emergence and use of judicial review remains a powerful judicial practice.
4. The federal bureaucracy is a powerful institution implementing federal policies with sometimes questionable accountability.