Governing is achieved directly through citizen participation and indirectly through institutions (e.g., political parties, interest groups, and mass media) that inform, organize, and mobilize support to influence government and politics, resulting in many venues for citizen influence on policy making.
1. Factors associated with political ideology, efficacy, structural barriers, and demographics influence the nature and degree of political participation.
2. Political parties, interest groups, and social movements provide opportunities for participation and influence how people relate to government and policymakers.
3. The impact of federal policies on campaigning and electoral rules continues to be contested by both sides of the political spectrum.
4. The various forms of media provide citizens with political information and influence the ways in which they participate politically.